The mayor of Mariana, Duarte Júnior, defended during the seminar Environmental Disasters: National and International Experiences, on Wednesday (13) in Rio de Janeiro, the increase to 4% of the rate of Compensation for Financial Exploration on Mineral Products (Cefem ) and said that the resumption of mining in the city of Minas Gerais should be resumed as soon as possible.

The seminar discussed, among other topics, the almost two years after the rupture of the Fundão dam belonging to the mining company Samarco. The tragedy in Mariana happened on November 5, 2015, resulting in the biggest environmental disaster in Brazil, leaving 19 dead and a great social liability for the populations living on the banks of the Rio Doce. The event was promoted by the Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) in partnership with the Consulate General of Germany in Rio de Janeiro.

For Duarte Júnior, the current tax rate is not enough for the municipality that, since the environmental disaster, has been suffering from the drop in collection, especially due to the lack of operation of Samarco in the region. "Any mining town has to understand that mining is finite, so within that 4% rate it is necessary to save a resource for future generations."

Currently the contribution is 1.7% on net revenue, but has already been changed by the federal government to 2.5% from next year. He said that 89% of the city's revenue is generated by the mining activity.

The mayor of Mariana said that the mining activity has to be resumed as soon as possible, because part of the population became unemployed, but it is necessary to ensure the safety conditions of essential services. "The only way to generate employment is to return the company. We are talking about 25% of the unemployed population. He is a family man who, when he returns to work, has his dignity. Stop depending on city hall and basic basket. So the faster the return of the company, the better, "he said.

Agreement criticized

During the seminar, the Krenak indigenous people, members of the Federal Public Prosecutor's Office and city mayors on the banks of the Rio Doce, including Mariana, criticized the Transactions and Adjustment of Conduct (TTAC) negotiated between public agencies and Samarco, Vale and BHP Billiton to compensate the residents affected by the environmental impacts resulting from the rupture of the Fundão dam. The agreement was ratified, but is currently suspended by the courts.

Geovani Krenak said that, like other communities affected by the environmental disaster, the Krenak, who consider the River Sweet as sacred in their culture, do not agree with TTAC. According to him, the communities were not heard to elaborate the compensatory measures that would be adopted.

"For us the agreement did not respect the community with everything that happened in relation to our sacred river. The least we expected was that in trying to resolve the agreement our people would be in the terms created. I understand that this agreement aims to strengthen the organs and not the affected communities, "he said.

MPF

Members of the Federal Public Prosecutor's Office, who make up the Rio Doce Task Force, were able to file a complaint with the Federal Court of Mines that the homologation previously made would be annulled. The coordinator of the Task Force, the attorney general, José Adércio Leite Sampaio, said that the document was not yet approved because, among other factors, it violates environmental legislation. In the case of indigenous communities it needed to have a prior hearing and, in addition, other communities were also not heard.

“Fomos sempre contra a homologação pela questão da ilegalidade e da ineficiência deste acordo”, disse, completando que não houve planejamento das ações com a definição dos recursos que serão empregados. O prefeito de Mariana, Duarte Júnior, disse que 35 prefeitos também se posicionaram contra o acordo, porque também não foram ouvidos.

Acordo possível

O superintendente do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Ibama), em Minas Gerais, Marcelo Belisário Campos, que representou o ministro Sarney Filho no seminário, reconheceu que não foi o melhor acordo, mas aquele que foi o possível ser feito na época. Mesmo sem estar homologado, o TTAC tem provocado punições. “Mesmo não homologado está sendo respeitado pelos signatários, inclusive sendo colocado a teste. A gente tem cláusulas não cumpridas que geraram penalidades. Multas que estão sendo pagas pela Fundação [Renova]”, disse.

A Fundação Renova foi criada pela mineradora Samarco para gerir as ações de reparação dos danos causados pela tragédia de Mariana.

Para o presidente da Renova, Roberto Waack, a participação das comunidades no desenho da governança das ações previstas no TTAC para reparar os danos causados pelo rompimento não ocorreu e isso tem que ser corrigido agora, na definição dos programas que tem sido feitos pela fundação. “São duas frentes. Uma é colocar na estrutura de governança, que é algo que está sendo negociado pelo Ministério Público, e outra na prática e no dia a dia, que é uma forma que a fundação busca atuar”.

Waack admitiou que a solução para os problemas causados pelo rompimento da barragem está longe. “Talvez a gente esteja em 20% ou 30% daquilo que precisa ser feito para endereçar o rejeito que ficou impactando a natureza. Dar destino para o rejeito e limpar a água. A gente acredita que essas questões estão em 20% ou 30%. Acredito que mais uns dois anos talvez fique difícil visualizar o desastre na região. Isso no campo ambiental. No campo social acho que a gente está em 5% ou 10%. Tem um longo caminho pela frente. Tem todo um processo de reconstrução das cidades, das indenizações, da recuperação dos modos de vida”, disse.

According to the president, the work being done is for the Rio Doce after the actions to return to conditions before the Mariana disaster. "I think in two or three years we'll see the river in the better tributary area. In the area of ​​monitoring it is already better and in the recovery of springs is happening and so on, "he concluded.